ADHD

Deficif of attention and hyperactivity - ADHD-

The disorder of the attention deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) is a diagnosis that grieves so that any father hears. Well it is known that the children with ADHD are in a disadvantage in school and that ADHD can have effects in the long term. In addition, a number of long-range pharmaceuticals has been used to treat the condition.

Luckily, newer results in the nutrition and the health, and newer generations of the pharmaceuticals, have been developed that can help to children with ADHD to gain control on their lives. The foundation of the extension of life has lead an extensive examination of scientific Literature to open the safest and better approaches for the families affected by this more and more common condition.

ADHD is defined whereas a persistent deficiency of the attention to the tasks (deficit of the attention) and/or a deficiency of the capacity to control impulses and an increase in the physical activity (hyperactivity) that is not typical of others in a similar stage of the development (national institutes of health 2006). ADHD is most frequent of children and adolescences, although it can happen in adults. ADHD happens in 3 to 6 percent of all the children in the United States, with the tariffs of up to 15 percent in some areas (Kasper Deciliter ET a the 2005).

According to the fourth edition of the manual of statistical diagnosis and psychiatric American of the association of the mental disorders (DSM-IV), ADHD now is the disorder of the possible behavior more commonly diagnosed of the childhood. The boys with ADHD exceed in number to girls 3 to 1. Some children pass ADHD, but 60 percent continue having symptoms (Biederman J ET to the 2000).

ADHD: A Typical Profile

The behavior of the children who have ADHD typically is affected in many adjustments such as in the country and school or when he is with friends. The most prominent characteristic of ADHD is a constant landlord of inadequate levels of development of the attention, the concentration, distractibility, the hyperactivity, and impulsivity. It is important to observe that these problems must be inadequate at a level of development of child's to be considered ADHD. A preoccupation between doctors is wild overdiagnosis of ADHD, partly because the condition has been so hard to define.

The children who have deficit of the attention cannot continue being in-task per extended periods of the time. They can appear forgetful, partly because its incapacity to take care of the information avoids that they understand it in the first place. Such children can also have cognitive and the language delays. The children with hyperactivity can trouble, have difficulty hooking to reserved activities, they are excessively talkative, and they always look like to be in going. The children who have problems of the control of the impulse can be impatient (for example, they can blurt outside an answer before the question has finished). They can have difficulty hoping of his return and they often perceive themselves to impose in others. All these manifestations can cause difficulties in the academic and social adjustments (Warner-Rogers J ET a the 2000).

It is common for kids with ADHD that will be diagnosed as having disorders that learn because they are often realised badly in the tests that require the concentration and data processing (Hartman CA ET a the 2004; Weiler Md ET to the 2000). There is also evidence that the adults with ADHD are more probable to have a variety of addictive behaviors, among them alcoholism (Ponce Ag ET a the 2000), smoking (Levin ED ET a the 2001), and use of the cocaine (Bandstra IS ET a the 2001).

What Cause ADHD?

Although the exact causes of ADHD are not known, is caused more likely by a genetic, environmental interaction of, and the nutritional factors, with a strong center in the interaction of the multiple genes (that genetic shipment) together cause ADHD.

There is a certain evidence that people with ADHD do not produce suitable amounts of certain neurotransmitters, among them dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Some experts theorize that such deficiencies lead to the same-stimulating behaviors one that can increase to the levels of the brain of these chemical agents (Comings OF ET of a the 2000; Member state ET to the 2000 of Mitsis; Sunohara GA ET to the 2000).

It can also have some structural and functional abnormalitys in the brain itself in the children who have ADHD (MR. 2002 of Pliszka; Mercugliano M 1999). The evidence suggests can have few connections between the cells of the nerve. This would more far aggravate to the communication of the nerves crippled already by the levels handicapped of the neurotransmitter (Barkley R 1997). The evidence of functional studies in patients with ADHD demonstrates to flow handicapped from the blood to those areas of the brain on which the function of “executive,” including control of the impulse, is based (magnesium ET a the 2000 of Paule). It can also have a deficit in the amount of myelin (material insulator) produced by the cells of brain in children with ADHD (Overmeyer S ET to the 2001).

To diagnose ADHD

To establish a diagnosis of ADHD is a considerable challenge, to a large extent due to the firm deficiency of reliable and specific that try and criteria. ADHD has become a condition of the high-profile (it can give rise him that he is that overdiagnosed and underneath diagnosed), following pressures of parents, the professors, and others. Although DSM-IV contains diagnosis criteria, are not followed often by the health professionals. Due to the implications of by life of a ADHD diagnosis, the majority of the experts they recommend a multidisciplinary approach of the equipment to the diagnosis and the treatment. Such approach must imply doctors, experts of the behavior of the boy, and to parents. The nutritional experts can also be member valuable of the equipment of the treatment.

The symptoms of the base of ADHD in children are enumerated down. This list was adapted of the centers for the disease transmission and contagion control. It is important to observe that the ADHD diagnosis cannot be done unless the patient has undergone these symptoms of the ways that are disqualifying by a period of six months. The DSM-IV diagnosis includes:

I. To or B:

A. Seises or more of the symptoms following of lack of attention has been present by at least 6 months to a point that is breaking and inadequate for the development level:

  1. It gives the attention near the details neither incurs often mistakes neglected in schoolwork, work, or other activities.
  2. It often has hardship keeping from the attention in tasks or activities of the game.
  3. It often does not look like to listen when it is spoken to directly.
  4. It does not follow instructions and it can often finish schoolwork, tasks, or duties in the work place (due to the behavior or to the lack of the oppositional not to understand instructions).
  5. It often has activities of organization of the hardship.
  6. It avoids, it has aversion, or it often does not wish to make the things that take many from mental effort by a period of the long time (as schoolwork or preparation).
  7. It often loses the things needed for the tasks and the activities (such as toys, allocations of the school, pencils, books, or tools).
  8. Often one relaxes easily.
  9. He is often forgetful in daily activities.

B. Seises or more of the symptoms following of hyperactivity/impulsivity has been present by at least 6 months to a degree that is breaking and inadequate for the development level:

Hyperactivity:

  1. Often disquiet with the hands or feet or kinks in seat.
  2. One often rises of seat when he is remaining in seat hopes.
  3. Often the operations around or the ascents when and where he is not appropriate (the adolescents or the adults can feel very anxious).
  4. It often has hardship playing or enjoying pastimes reserved.
  5. Go is often “on” or often acts as if “they driven by a motor.”
  6. Speech often excessively.


Impulsiveness:

  1. Blurts often outside answers before the questions have finished.
  2. It often has hardship hoping of his return.
  3. It often interrupts or it imposes in others (such as extreme in conversations or games).

II. Some symptoms that cause the weakening were present before age 7 years.

III. A certain weakening of the symptoms is present in two or more adjustments (for example in school or work and the country).

IV. It must have clear evidence of the significant weakening in social, school, or the operation of the work.

V. The symptoms do not only happen during the course of the disorder of penetrating development, the schizophrenia, or the other psychopathic disorder. The symptoms better are not explained by another mental disorder (as a disorder of humor, a disorder of anxiety, disorder dissociative, or disorder of the personality).

Traditional Medical treatment

In addition to the management of the behavior, the medical treatment of ADHD includes stimulating and medications nonstimulant.

Drugs of the stimulant. The effective drugs of the prescription are mainly the drugs supposed of the stimulant. These agents know themselves to increase concentrations of the brain of a variety of neurotransmitters of the brain, the more importantly possible dopamine, and exert an effect that calms on the people who have ADHD. Since the dopamine heightens to indicate between the cells of the nerve that are implied in activities task-especi'ficas and also noise falls “,” or “nonsense that indicates,” the increasing concentrations of the dopamine think to help individuals to remain focused and in-task.

In spite of their limitations, the stimulants still consider treatment first-line for ADHD. They are effective in 70 to 80 percent of patients. The stimulants are highly effective in alleviating to symptoms of the base ADHD (such as lack of attention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity). The original preparations of the stimulant had very short periods of the action that could give rise to ascents and dramatic falls in levels of the drug. Newer preparations long-that acted have developed to equal outside these oscillations.

Even with the newest formulations, some injurious effects are inevitable. The long term effects, although are unusual, can happen. There is a certain evidence, for example, that in the long term it uses of stimulating, especially the methylphenida to you (Ritalin

®), it can cause delays in the growth (Holtkamp K ET a the 2002). He is comprehensible that many parents are vacillating to give to their young children this medication.

Whereas they are effective, the drugs of the stimulant are member of the class of the amphetamine, that average they can have significant injurious effects and carry out a certain potential for the abuse. Unfortunately, the methylphenida one to you it has gained reputation as recreational drug, especially between adolescents and students of university. Whereas the methylphenida one to you it acts paradoxical as drug that calms between the people diagnosed with ADHD, it acts as stimulating between the people who do not have ADHD. The examinations have indicated that more than 90 percent of the students of university and the adolescents who abuse the methylphenida one to you identified drugs of the prescription as their drug of the option (the white boiling point ET a the 2006).

Drugs of Nonstimulant. The negative effects of drugs of the stimulant have lead to an intensive search for better alternatives. Atomoxetine is the first drug nonstimulant approved by the administration of the food and the drug of the USA (FDA) for the treatment of ADHD and the only agent approved by FDA for the treatment of ADHD in adults.

The therapy of Atomoxetine for ADHD controls symptoms and maintains the remission, and has comparable effectiveness with the methylphenida one to you, a favorable profile of security, and noncontrolled the state of the substance (Christman AK ET a the 2004). Atomoxetine safe and is tolerated well (Kelsey DK ET to the 2004). It reduces with effectiveness ADHD symptoms and improves the social operation in children, school-aged adolescents, and adults. As with medications of the stimulant, atomoxetine is due to use with the precaution in the patients who have hypertension or a cardiovascular disorder (Christman AK ET a the 2004).

In addition to atomoxetine, other drugs that increase to the concentrations of the brain of the dopamine and/or serotonin have used with degrees that varied of success. Between these they are gabapentin the anticonvulsive one (Hamrin V ET to the 2001), bupropion of the antidepressant dopamine-that it heightens (Daviss WB ET a the 2001), the modafinil of the drug wakefulness-that it promotes (tailor FB ET to the 2000), and the donepezil, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase that it increases levels of the brain of acetylcholine. The studies, nevertheless, have thrown doubt in the effectiveness of the donepezil (Wilens YOU ET a the 2005).

Nutritional therapy

According to the mentioned thing previously, ADHD is caused more likely by multiple factors, including nutritional editions. The children with ADHD can have specific deficiencies nutrients that aggravate their condition. Whereas the investigators learn more on the intersection between the diet and disorders of the behavior, the case for the nutritional intervention between children with ADHD gets to be that it forces ma's. In the future, it is almost certain that this multi-factor disease will be treated in the multiple fronts, including with the nutritional intervention (Harding kiloliter ET a the 2003). Already, many progressive parents and doctors are giving returned to the comprehensive options of the medical care to fight this condition of the frustration.

Essential fatty acids. An increasing body of scientific Literature is helping parents and the doctors understand better the connection between fatty acids and the disorders of the behavior such as ADHD. The quotient between fatty acids Omega-3 and Omega-6 (such as acid arachidonic) looks like especially important. The acid of Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and acid docosahexaenoic (DHA) is the fatty acids oil Omega-3 found of the linseed and fish of the cold water. In the typical western diet, we lie down to consume more fatty acids in relation to Omega-3 of fatty acids Omega-6. The quotient of Omega-3 to fatty acids Omega-6 has been demonstrated to influence the development of the neurotransmitters and other chemical agents that are essential for the normal function of the brain. The increasing product of fatty acids Omega-3 has been demonstrated to reduce the tendency towards hyperactivity between children with ADHD (Haag M 2003).

  • Several studies have examined the essential fatty acid paper in ADHD, with results very that animated:
  • In an experimental study, they gave to the children with ADHD the oil of the linseed, that is rich in acid alpha-alpha-linolenic. In the body, the acid metaboliza alpha-alpha-linolenic in EPA and DHA. In the end of the study, the investigators found that the symptoms of children with ADHD that were given the oil of the linseed improved in all the measures (Joshi K ET a the 2006).
  • Another study examined effects of oil of linseed and fish lubricate, that provides degrees that vary of fatty acids Omega-3, in adults with ADHD. They gave to the patients the supplements by 12 weeks. Their levels of the blood of fatty acids Omega-3 were followed through the 12 weeks. The investigators found that the oil of the fish of the high-dose increased to the acids Omega-3 in acids in relation to Omega-6 of the blood. A imbalance between acid arachidonic and the fatty acids Omega-3 considers a factor of risk for ADHD (GS young ET a the 2005).

Finally, a study compared to 20 children with ADHD that were given a dietary supplement (that the fatty acids including Omega-3) to the children with ADHD that were given the methylphenida one to you. The dietary supplement was a mixture of vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids, probiotics, amino acids, and phytonutrients. Amazing, the groups demonstrated the almost identical improvement in measures commonly accepted of ADHD (Harding kiloliter ET to the 2003).

A study also has indicated that the children with ADHD benefit from product of a combination of essential fatty acids and vitamin E (Stevens L ET to the 2003).

Magnesium and B6 vitamin. To combine magnesium and the B6 vitamin has demonstrated the promise to reduce ADHD symptoms. The B6 vitamin has many functions in the body, including attending the synthesis of the neurotransmitters and the formation of myelin, that the nerves protect. The magnesium is also very important; it is implied in more than 300 metabolic reactions. At least three studies have demonstrated that the combination of magnesium and the B6 vitamin improved behavior, it diminished anxiety and the aggression, and improved mobility between children with ADHD (Nogovitsina Or ET a 2006a, b; Nogovitsina Or ET to the 2005; Mousain-Bosc M ET to the 2004).

Iron. The deficiency of the iron can be implied in ADHD (Konofal and ET to the 2004), although the studies of the suplementación have demonstrated minimum or no effects (Millichap JG ET a the 2006). Due to the potential toxicity of the supplements of the iron, the parents must consult to their paediatrician of children's before beginning the suplementación.

Zinc. The zinc is a cofactor for the production of neurotransmitters, fatty acids, prostaglandins, and melatonin, and indirectly affects the metabolism of the dopamine and fatty acids. Nevertheless, the paper of zinc in ADHD still is emerging. The numerous studies have demonstrated that the children with ADHD are often deficient in zinc. Nevertheless, the investigators have not determined that a deficiency of zinc causes ADHD or that the treatment with zinc can improve ADHD symptoms (Arnold HIM ET to 2005a, b). Two Turkish studies, nevertheless, have proven therapy of zinc between children with ADHD with positive results. In these studies, they selected to the children to the groups at random that received zinc or the placebo. In a study, the conditions of the children who took zinc by 6 weeks improved (Akhondzadeh S ET to the 2004). In the second study, zinc as the unique therapy gave rise to the compared significant improvements to the placebo (Bilici M ET to a the 2004).

Acetyl. This form superior of L-l-carnitine, that is responsible to transport fatty acids in mitochondria, has been associated to a host of the positive subsidies by disease, including the reduction of impulsivity. In a model animal of ADHD, the acetyl-l-acetyL-L-CARNITIne it was demonstrated to reduce the index of impulsivity (Adriani W ET a the 2004).

Additional foods and hormones

Melatonin. Melatonin is a secretada hormone at night by the pineal gland. It participates in multiple processes of the body, including the regulation of the cycle of sleep/wake. Because many children and adults who also have ADHD to have problems of the dream, melatonin can be an important part of an integral therapy. By some estimations, up to 25 percent of children with ADHD they also have disorders of the dream. Unfortunately, nevertheless, the conventional therapy deals with the portion the hyperactivity of the disease but it neglects the disorder of the dream (Betancourt-Fursow de Jimenez YM ET to the 2006). In a study of 27 children with ADHD and the insomnia, 5 milligrams (magnesium) of melatonin, combined with the therapy of the dream, helped to reduce the insomnia (Weiss Md ET a the 2006).

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). DHEA is a hormone important steroid neuroactive that it is possible to be implied in ADHD, although the investigators still are trying to understand the relation. ADHD is associated at the low levels of its main dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate and main his, DHEA blood pregnenolone of the precursor, of metabolite (DHEA-S). Higher levels of the blood of these neurosteroids are associated to few symptoms (Strous RD ET to a the 2001). In addition, a study of adolescent boys with ADHD demonstrated that the DHEA levels rise after a course of three months of the treatment of the methylphenida one to you, that implies that DHEA somehow plays a role in the effectiveness of the drug (Maayan R ET a the 2003).

She-wolf and ginseng of ginkgo. A combination of these two grass has studied so that its capacity improves symptoms between patients with ADHD. In a study of 36 children who extended as an older person in age from the 3 to 17 years, a combination of the she-wolf of ginkgo and the American ginseng was twice administered a day in an empty stomach by 4 weeks. In the end of the study, more than 70 percent of patients they had experienced the improvement in a measurement extensively used of ADHD symptoms (Mr. ET a the 2001 of Lyons).

Environmental and dietetic considerations

The considerable controversy continues surrounding the questions by how much they contribute environmental toxins and the dietetic factors to ADHD (Kidd P.M. 2000). The toxicity opened of the polluting agents and the contaminating agents such as mercury and biphenyls polychlorinated (PCBs) are known to cause an ample range of the disorders of the behavior (dc 2000 of the rice), although the effects of subtler exhibitions is less clear.

Similar, several theories have advanced with respect to the association between the dietetic components (such as simple sugars) and ADHD, but the evidence conviction is lacking again (Chaves-Carballo and 2003). Manipulations dietetic, such as the diet of the elimination of Feingold, in which a category (or several categories) of the food is excluded carefully, has been tried but without success in ADHD that tried (Krummel GIVES ET to the 1996).

Also, although the allergies to foods or nutritional additives have seted out as ADHD cause (Boris M ET to the 1994; Rowe KS ET to the 1994), is little scientific base for this idea there. The supposed diets oligoantigenic aim to reduce to the number and the variety of food-based alergénicos that the children could be exhibited a. Some small tests have demonstrated a certain advantage in carefully selected groups of the children (Egger J ET of a the 1985). Because such diets aim to eliminate great categories of the food (on what young crescents can depend), must be only undertaken in the careful collaboration with a doctor. The test of the allergy has tried rarely beneficial in ADHD that tried.

The paper of the dietetic sugar. In spite of the attention much in the popular press, has been no convincing evidence that the dietetic sugar is causal in ADHD (Krummel GIVES ET to the 1996). In a study 1985, they demonstrated the children with ADHD to have lower levels of the adrenalin after a product of the sugar that to control the children (Girardi NL ET a the 1995). The implications of this study are not clear. Nevertheless, other studies have suggested some children with ADHD can have sensitivities of the food that include the sugar. The authors of these studies conclude that the modification of the diet is an important part of ADHD management (Schnoll R ET of a the 2003). What the result of this discussion, is no doubt that the dietetic sugar is not an advantage in the diets of the children. League to the decay, the obesity, and other conditions of the health. Therefore, he is probably wise that all the children to limit or avoid the dietetic sugar totally.

Recommendations

  • Ideally, the ADHD treatment will touch of life in many aspects of a patient, of the daily routines to exercise to the therapies of behavior to the nutrition. ADHD is probable a multi-factor disease, therefore it deserves to be tried in many fronts. The changes following of the life form can help in the reduction of the associated anxiety to ADHD:
  • Diet. Aim for a well-well-balanced diet. It avoids unnecessary simple sugars. It only uses the specific diets of the elimination in society with a doctor. The people who observe diets of the elimination are probable to need the suplementación with vitamins, minerals, and possibly other foods.
  • Exercise. It moderates to the vigorous physical activity is beneficial for all the children but especially for kids that has disorders of the behavior. It tries the activity of the moderate-intensity by 30 minutes almost every day and a minimum of 30 minutes of vigorous activity 3 to 4 days to the week.

 

techniques of the Mind-body. Massage, biofeedback, and meditation on the attempt. It avoids the overload of the information. Some children with trustworthy, rigid ADHD benefit from schedule.

  • In addition, the following foods can help to control the symptoms:
  • Zinc to 30 milligrams (mg) /day
  • EPA/DHA-1400 mg/day of EPA and 1000 mg/day of DHA
  • Units internacionalesde the vitamin and -400 (IU) /day of 200 alpha-alpha-tocopherols and at least mg/day of gamma-gamma-tocopherols
  • Magnesium to 500 mg/day
  • B6-up vitamin to 250 mg/day
  • Acetyl to 2000 mg/day
  • Microgramosde Melatonin -300 (mcg) /day to 3 mg/day
  • 75 DHEA-15 to mg/day; it has blood proven after 3 to 6 weeks to determine optimal levels
  • She-wolf -120mg/day of ginkgo

 

 

Ginseng American-500 mg/day

Children with disorders of learning and/or behavior

Abram Hoffer PhD
From 1955 I have dealt on 2000 children under age of 14 with therapy to orthomolecular. In ABC of my Hoffer of books the one “of the natural nutrition for kids”, it presses of the mine, Kingston, IGNITION, 1999, and “the disorders of the attention and the behavior of the curative children, press of CCNM, Toronto, 2005, the results of the treatment are disclosed. I have found DSM IV published by the American psychiatric association of little value. We surely do not have 45 diverse psychiatric diseases with its individual numbers for this general class of children. They fall in two main classes: the allergies and the toxins of the food, and that one outside, but both groups need the suplementación with correct vitamins B. I am not only in my opinion on the value of the modern psychiatric diagnosis. Professor I Savodnik 1, psychiatrist and the philosopher who teaches in UCLA wrote, “as he is, the American psychiatric association has been being the mental diseases by the fifty past years. The original manual in1952 contained 107 diagnosis, the second in 1968 180, of 1981 it had increased to 226, and in 1994 it jumped ahead to 263 conditions: An increase of 340 percent in labels of the diagnosis in fifty years. Nowhere in the rest of medicine it has such proliferation of categories happened.”
The children with fetal syndrome of the alcohol also respond to the same treatment. This condition is considered untreatable. Dr. D. Herrera 2, medical university of Weil, Cornell, found that in mice niacinamide invested the pathological effects of this syndrome.
RL, female, taken May 25,1994, the first September of 2004 sight. Referred with diagnosis of the fetal syndrome of the alcohol
RL came with their adoptive mother who was taking care of for her by last the three years. Before they neglected it, and had been bothered, for who it received a right amount of advising. It found very difficult to focus and the questions would have to be repeated several times. It underwent oscillations of humor, he was disabled to learn, and she secured additional particular course. Their relations to their younger sister were sometimes too aggressive ambivalent and domineering, sometimes class. The physical aggression to its sister had moderate on the years. In Dexedrine it underwent severe side effects including severe nightmares and visual illusions. Ritalin was not absolutely as toxic for her but he was not very beneficial. From being taken inside by his adoptive mother they had placed it in a very good diet, dairy freely and it had improved much. I began it in a diet that was also without sugar and replaced with magnesium after each food, essential fatty acids of niacin 100 of ascorbic acid 500 1 to 2 grams of newspaper and the preparations of multivitamin of the children. Before July of 2005 it was almost normal, very athletic and was planned to continue with the special education for her.
Her sister, born the 1 from March of 2001, came with her. It was normal but her adoptive mother was very worried that she can also be that develops the same syndrome. Her mother drank by the first five months of her pregnancy, not knowing that she was pregnant. They began it in a similar program to make sure that well it would remain. Before July of 2005 its adoptive mother it disclosed that it was far better in pre-training. They had dealt with a similar approach some months previously and one had reclaimed the adoptive mother of these two children. It was found out the importance of the nutrition and the appropriate suplementación.
For a considered disease an untreatable case test that the program will help each boy, but does not suggest is tried as it is totally safe.

  • The foods commonly use for kids with disorders learning and/or of the behavior (under medical supervision):
  • B-3 vitamin
  • Vitamin C
  • B-6
  • Magnesium
  • Zinc